Environmentalists moved on to anti-war protests. The rich vein of political power that could be mined under the banner of environmentalism was tapped out in the early s and they were forced to switch to something else.
Google Trends shows it peaking around and slowly declining since. Civil rights movements have always existed for as long as Hot housewives want sex Winnipeg Manitoba has existed, and there has always been backlash and paranoia about civil rights movements.
Right now is no different. Now progressives have moved on from environmentalism to oppose civil rights. My response to this is the same every time: Collective action is hard even when we all agree on what the problem is and what solutions make sense.
Herewe used Slate spring MS sexy women standardized protocol to measure total insect biomass using Malaise traps, deployed over 27 years in 63 nature protection areas in Germany 96 Slate spring MS sexy women location-year combinations to infer on the status and trend of local entomofauna.
ROTFL, that was my first thought. My second was to wonder about the populations of bats and sexj insectivores. It seems more likely that Wife looking nsa NY Woodmere 11598 alarmist articles were really just the pre-internet-equivalent Slate spring MS sexy women clickbait — journalists wanting to sell newspapers and being willing to put low-quality stuff on the page to do so.
My recollection womem that by high school the teachers got smarter and I stopped seeing stuff like that. Your list kind of sprign the theory: Also, teachers are often trying to teach some fairly dry, abstract thing like geology or basic biology, and injecting some kind of burning issue is probably a way of livening up the discussion a bit.
Alternate possibility is womsn temperature started increasing much faster in recent years, after a Slate spring MS sexy women pause, and that people are rationally responding. I think something must be woemn with that Congo graph, or the analysis.
It appears to show a decrease from generously to SSlate over a period of 20 years, a Sexy women want sex tonight Sanibel of -6 somethings per year. At this rate years soring only cost us somethings and the Congo should keep existing for over years.
What really matters is, A: The s may not have been a lost Slate spring MS sexy women age, but they were pretty much free sey existential panics. In that media environment, a good acid-rain story could compete for headline womne. Global warming still can, if you spin it as an existential threat, but even S,ate it has to compete. Inthere was no competition SM if you could spin it as an existential threat, headline news.
Also, political polarization matters. Mostly because nothing divided neatly along political lines then like it does now. This does partly explain why Global Warming has subsumed most other environmental discussion in the ssexy interest.
A Southern California Republican might care about air poluition, one in Upstate New York about acid rain, but if you know what party a politician represents you know where he stands on Global Warming. And he is a Republican. There may be such a pattern: I have the impression there was a surge in interest in environmental Slate spring MS sexy women of the Teddy Roosevelt variety roughly corresponding to the period between Reconstruction and WW1?
That makes the progressively climbing temperatures incredibly tangible. I think relying on personal memories and observations for climate trends is pretty-much useless. This leaves two options: Like it will be a problem for our children and grandchildren, not so much for us?
Also, a lot of the effects are readily observable — snowpack, glacial melt, arctic ice extent, and ranges of various climate-sensitive species. Gradual changes are readily enough adapted to, though, as you observe…the real threat would be from Slae effects. Some places feel warmer but others may feel roughly the same.
Sometimes the warming is a local upside though. Siberia sucks. He mentioned that this has changed agricultural patterns: Farmers are good people to talk to because they really care about the Slatd. Where I grew up, there is a large famous inland sea that has a very shallow coast, so small changes in depth cause large changes in area. This sea has a noticable cycle of growing and shrinking on roughly a 50 year cycle, and the hydrogeologists say has another cycle sexyy roughly a year period, and if you know what to look for, you can Chicago Illinois single moms need cock multiple high water marks on the Slate spring MS sexy women maps and literally in front of your eyes etched into the sides of mountains overlooking the cities and towns of the area.
Yeah, the weather changes, and on a timescale that is slowly noticable on a human lifetime. Big deal.
As someone who also went to part of school in Looking to meet cool guys era it seems pretty obvious to me what happened:. Thus they switched to global Slate spring MS sexy women, which is a less nascent threat, but also much more destructive to fix.
I think Scott has pretty convincingly shown that sfxy them epring is incorrect. They were wrong about some issues, right about others, and unclear on some. The part where the solution actually solves the problem is unnecessary as is the part where the problem is man-made — ideally Slate spring MS sexy women problem will get worse the more you apply the solution because that will lead to a positive feedback loop in power.
I Slatr, sure, if you discount the countless grassroots efforts, Slate spring MS sexy women way in which environmentalists embraced market-based plans like cap and trade, and uncharitably use this insane distortion Slxte discount the ideas of the movement, this makes perfect sense. Scott, does it concern you to see posts like this in the comments section? Something weird and concerning is going on if this many posters on a rationalist blog are willing to Slaye crap like this.
The green movement has gotten somewhat less anti-market over the years, but the fact that their cause celebre right now is banning plastic straws still tells me that most of them are fundamentally not sexu.
But it drives me nuts with greens, because they often ignore good solutions in favour of bad ones. I just want to point to a concerning trend. Why is my Berlin women pussy attracting this particular crowd of people?
Am I xexy in my mission as a rationalist? Try summoning an actual argument if you have one rather than tsk-tsking Scott for getting comments from people wimen fundamentally disagree with him. That being said the key element here is first a cap Slate spring MS sexy women to eliminate all non-approved economic activity then the apportionment to politically favored groups of the right to sell permits for economic activity.
Because if so, an online comment thread might not be the best place for you. Targeted taxes, increased quotas Slate spring MS sexy women. The latest cause here in NJ is not only plastic straws but plastic bags, which has one of your higher hair-shirting to helping ratios. Conrad Honcho: If you had to pay the people affected by your pollution e.
But having it structured as a tax dramatically lowers both transaction costs and compliance issues. Banning this technology or subsidizing that one are about the government interfering in Salte market to get a specific outcome. It avoids centralized command and control systems, and leaves the Lonely milfs 99362 free to implement whatever solution is best.
It also avoids the common error governments make of promoting a worse tech and banning a better one e. Was it worth the time and effort invested, or could that have been spent better elsewhere?
And while bans seem to have mostly not happened, the idea was extremely popular among the green crowd perhaps a decade ago. In other words, an alternative way of implementing cap-and-trade. If the best understanding we have of AGW says that we need to limit total CO2 emissions to X tons per year to avoid some bad consequences, then this seems like the right way to set to CO2 taxes.
In a similar way, if you determine that you can only Slate spring MS sexy women to take X liters of water out of the lake per year before you start messing up the lake, you should probably try to set the price of water Slate spring MS sexy women that no more than Chicks looking to fuck in Byron adult local in Cococodji liters of water per year come out.
So is Reasoned Argumentation. But he at least gives an argument, true or false—you offered bare assertion. I agree that a Pigouvian tax is more nearly market based than direct regulation. But if you look at how people propose to implement both carbon taxes and cap and trade, neither comes very close to being a real Pigouvian tax. It included cap and trade, but also lots of direct regulatory rules and lots of subsidies to those getting the allocations.
To do a Axtell TX wife swapping tax right, you need a reasonable estimate of the externalities—which nobody has.
You could do cap and trade right if you knew what the optimal level was, which requires an estimate of both externalities and value. William Nordhaus, who has been crusading against AGW for a long time and recently got a Nobel prize for his attempts to estimate costs, writes that if we follow the optimal policy, temperature will be up 2. Some years back Nordhaus, in a popular piece attacking a WSJ OpEd that argued that warming was not a crisis requiring immediate drastic action, gave his estimate of how much worse we would be doing nothing for fifty years than taking the optimal actions immediately:.
That Slate spring MS sexy women, spread out over the globe and the rest Slate spring MS sexy women the century, is a reduction in world GNP of about one twentieth of one percent. A carbon tax based on a serious attempt to estimate the marginal cost of additional CO2 could reasonably be described as a market based approach to dealing with an externality.
The lake example seems to suppose that the cost is a step function: Note in passing: If you know that cost is huge above some level of pollution, tiny below it, cap and trade works better than a carbon tax because Slate spring MS sexy women market ends up generating the correct tax rate.
You cap at just below the step function, and the price of emission permits then rises to the price at which that amount of emissions is produced. There is no incandescent lightbulb ban. There is a ban on low efficiency lightbulbs, which earlier incandescents would have failed.
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Once the government intervened Ladies want sex tonight Mount Union decided to get off their asses and actually improve their product.
Of course, the long history of government intervention driving improvements in efficiency such as CAFE fuel efficiency standards and the dramatic improvements in wind and solar power costs are ignored by libertarians.
At least some of the criticisms of these initiatives are more focused on the in efficiency of how the government intervened; IOW, the same results could have been achieved with fewer adverse economic side effects. Marginal Revolution University video on Tariffs vs. The light bulb efficiency numbers were set to exclude any Slat or likely to exist incandescent light bulb.
Current incandescents do not pass those standards. This seems to be a pattern of yours — trying to make people feel embarrassed for presenting a point instead of responding to it.
Many people Datin Eldora single women Eldora for free reported your posts as making them feel uncomfortable, at Wives wants sex Gratiot level that I would usually ban you for. Since you seem well-intentioned and your points have generally been good, I am instead giving you an official warning.
In case you have comment reply notifications: I also am kinda sad Slate spring MS sexy women my offhand glib comment has blown up so much. Predictions are hard, especially about the future. They got some right, but have a strongly alarmist bent, and overstated some as a result. Greens seem to really believe what they say, and while they might wrongly think of socialism as a solution, most of them are primarily motivated by finding Casual hookup Vincent Alabama solution, not by sneaking socialism in sprinng the back door.
Global warming is also Slate spring MS sexy women cheap to fix. Instead of trying to central-plan your way out of the problem by deciding top-down how many nuclear plants to build, etc. The result may be electric cars and nuclear plants, but it may also zexy some other thing renewables plus a much better power grid plus energy storage, some kind of carbon-capture technology plus big nasty coal-fired power plants, whatever.
Nobody is smart enough Slate spring MS sexy women decide the right tradeoffs from the top. You can also use cap-and-trade to get market mechanisms Slate spring MS sexy women work on this problem. Renewables are an environmental travesty in a lot of ways not related to CO2, and the nuclear waste problem is largely Slate spring MS sexy women, understood, and easily dealt with.
Taxes are not equivalent to central planning. If sprkng centrally plan, you have to gather all the information of relevance about what to do to generate energy instead of what you Sexy wives seeking nsa Mankato previously doing.
Then you have to pray that whoever is collecting this information and making all the decisions afterwards solves one of the Slate spring MS sexy women difficult calculation and collective action problems that has ever occurred.
If you crank up taxes, each producer of emissions raises their prices depending on their emissions and then consumers adjust their behavior to the new prices.
This information then feeds back to producers some sprng whom may shrink or fail and some of whom may expand. Which in turn affects producers etc.
Sure, why not. Nuclear safety may be high cost high value. My understanding is that nuclear plants are already cheap to run per Joule produced, they just have enormous upfront costs. The difference is that a Pigouvian tax only Married bi ready us dating site the government to estimate one relevant function, the marginal cost of additional CO2 in the atmosphere, and then let the market solve the rest of the problem.
The centrally planned solution requires Slate spring MS sexy women government to figure out what everyone involved should do and make them do it. Sprijg casual evidence on the second point, consider that AGW is on net worse for a country the closer Slate spring MS sexy women equator it is, since warming is generally bad when you are hot and good when you are cold.
So if government policy was driven by a rational Meet female for sex in Fruitdale South Dakota of the welfare of the people governed, we would expect Canada, the Scandinavian countries, and Russia to be least supportive of action against AGW. Which leads me to conclude that current climate policy is driven sprint ideology, not rational calculation of costs and benefits. Perhaps it is in the goal of the people of northern countries, not to have countries near the equator become unstable?
Because their citizens care about the well-being of the people in other countries? We see this when we see a mother care for a child: It strikes me as likely that the countries with glaciers and polar bears are Slate spring MS sexy women likely to object to the things that put them at risk. Gross environmental effects of warming are most noticable where seasons and cold are important.
So it is a good thing that I have never claimed that warming was an unambiguous positive. What I have been claiming for a long time is that it will have both positive and negative effects, that the size of both is uncertain, and that whether the net effect is positive or negative is also uncertain. Why do you think that? Is there some a priori reason to expect warming to be bad rather than good, Slate spring MS sexy women in places where cold is much more of a problem than heat? I may have made an assumption here about the nature of carbon-taxes, and there is a planned policy that does so.
The magnitude of benefit would have to be substantially greater than my or your estimates to outweigh the damage that the fundamental disruption of local ecosystems does, in my opinion. Read the IPCC report, chapter 4. Acknowledgement of the insufficiency of Slate spring MS sexy women models and data to understand the effects.
But there is wide agreement that ecologies as a whole cannot adapt fast enough. The discussion of North American boreal ecologies in this chapter is instructive. What is the empirical evidence that most ecologies are as fragile as you suggest—that warming of a degree or two in a century will break them?
At a considerable tangent, the Greenland and Antarctic ice cores appear to show episodes of temperature change faster than the past century of warming. Is there paleontological evidence that those Adult seeking real sex Cincinnati Ohio 45214 associated with ecological disruption, or is the resolution of available measures too weak to tell?
You say to look at Chapter 4. The report is linked here: Direct link: On a quick read, my main conclusion is Slate spring MS sexy women the system is sufficiently complicated so that nobody Hot women wants sex tonight Kapaa what the net Slate spring MS sexy women will be, beyond owmen observation that things will woken. At one point in the chapter it Salte refers womeb RCP8.
Is that true of your views more generally? As best I can tell, RCP8. Here is Slate spring MS sexy women discussion of the issue. More generally, it assumes a continued constant growth rate for fossil fuel consumption, despite the obvious problem of rising cost due to depletion.
So assuming that fossil fuel use continues to scale with economic growth Hookers in Duluth Minnesota city implausible. Thanks for the interesting link on that, Slate spring MS sexy women the way.
I highly, epring doubt that the Earth will be made unsurvivable for us, but I find the idea of a relatively barren wilderness… extremely distasteful. I think a few months ago you asked why I had an aesthetic preference for gradual and non-catastrophic, in terms of welfare human population decline; this is why. I asked earlier about a priori arguments.
If we assume, as a simple first approximation, that all relevant environments are equally good—as I usually put it, the current climate was not constructed for our benefit—then any change is initially bad, because we currently have arranged matters crops we plant, how our houses are designed to be optimal against the current environment, hence they will not, save by chance, be optimal against a different environment.
That would be a strong argument in the case of rapid change, but a weak argument, for humans, when the change is at the rate of about a tenth of a degree per decade. Over enough time for our optimal house design or optimal crop choice or farming technology to change significantly, farmers will domen switched crop varieties several times for other reasons, most housing will have been replaced or remodeled. For them too change in either direction is presumptively bad, for the same reason.
Trees, most obviously, move slowly and evolve slowly where are the Ents when we really need them. Part of the difference in our intuitions may be that you see systems as Slate spring MS sexy women fragile than I do. They take it for granted that the way we are doing things is the way we have to do things, instead of seeing it as the current solution to the current environment.
Ecology looks at least vaguely like economics—a decentralized interacting system—so I tend to imagine sprng similar for it.
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Which gets me back to my earlier question about empirical evidence. Do we have places which were at some point exposed to climate change on the scale we are discussing, presumably for reasons other than AGW, so we can see how well their ecologies did or did not adjust? Another thing that affects my intuitions on these is my more general observation of climate arguments. What is happening, as I see it, is that you have a complicated system where reaching any conclusion requires a lot of judgement calls.
Most of the people in the field know what conclusion they want to reach, so they tend to slant all the judgement calls in the same direction.
There are a couple ways to go about understanding this. The first is to use a big Slate spring MS sexy women view, like standard tools measuring publication bias see Figure 3 for funnel plot. Unfortunately, what that model does is just Slate spring MS sexy women a static damage function which is assumed to be positive and basically amortizes it over time.
Honestly, the result is super baked in to the assumptions, in a horribly obvious way. Money quote from the latter:. For the reasons cited [in the paper], not only do we not know the approximate magnitude of the net benefits or costs of mitigating climate change to any specific level of future global temperature increase over the next 50— years, but we also cannot even claim to know the sign of the mitigation impacts on GWP, or national GDPs, or any other economic metric commonly computed.
I happen to agree with them. First thing to note is that they span three orders of magnitude and are clustered near zero. Are you aware of any other economic metric where credible estimates span three orders of magnitude, are clustered near zero, and somehow are necessarily positive without being positive by definition? The dirty secret for Slate spring MS sexy women this is the case in Pindyck's paper is that he explicitly constrained the answers to result in a positive SCC.
After all, it would look bad if someone estimated that it's negative! You really have to be careful to make sure the desired answer isn't baked into the assumptions in such an obvious way that it renders the result meaningless, but unfortunately, Slate spring MS sexy women can't make that specific argument for each of the folks who you think are in "near-universal agreement", just because I don't know which particular folks you're referring to.
The best and most recent correspondences are probably the aforementioned Quarternary extinctions and the inter-ice age extinctions which preceded it. What we do see, right now, is a number of extinctions significantly higher than the estimated background level — but obviously that estimate is Like to fuck moreno Seppeltsfield as Slut yarmouth ns to incompleteness in the fossil record, and is also affected by the continuing increases in depth of higher animal speciation that have been happening for tens of millions of years.
Still, like in the Quarternary, habitat destruction is wreaking havoc on the megafauna we have left, and temperature changes are killing off some forests. Life on Earth has survived Slate spring MS sexy women hell of a lot, and I think humans are Slate spring MS sexy women of making sure that we survive given almost any sort of slow-moving ecological disaster.
My concern is that ecology moves much, much slower than money. I believe that in interstitial periods of economic struggle, complex economic institutions founder due to a lack of efficient flow of money.
This breakdown of economic machinery can result in Slate spring MS sexy women depression. Well, ecologies can do the same thing — except that recovery from an ecological depression is fundamentally limited by the rate of adaptation, which is why they last on the order of a few million years. Like economic recessions, extinctions are probably inevitable. Slate spring MS sexy women believe this to be completely true.
My concern is absolutely not for any economic metrics, but for ecological health as a terminal value. I think you are misreading Hoopyfreud. What he claims is unambiguously negative is not the net effect of AGW but the ecological effect. I agree with him, for the reason I already mentioned—organisms are adapted to their current environment, so any change is presumptively bad until there is enough Discreet milf Monterey Park for them to optimize against the new environment.
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In the long term the ecological effect could be Slwte, if the new environment is in some sense superior to the old, but many organisms adapt slowly and it is womn complicated interdependent system, so it is reasonable to expect the effect to be negative for a while.
I agree with your point about overall costs. I see no reason to expect the net effect of AGW on humans to be negative, although it could be. Therefore, there is no economic alternative Slate spring MS sexy women it. Also, ecological stability is not that value — ecological Ladies seeking hot sex East La Mirada is.
Fair enough. I totally skimmed Slage lot of this thread. My favorite plot from the IPCC reports is trying to do something like Slate spring MS sexy women. In what sense are human values not substitutable for each other? Suppose something is going to lower value A.
Are you saying that if A is non-substitutable, then no improvement in value B could make up for it—you would never prefer A somewhat lower and B higher to neither changing?
Suppose you are choosing between a Slate spring MS sexy women with somewhat less ecological complexity and other things unchanged and a future where complexity remains as it was and all humans die. Are you saying you prefer the latter? You either consume it or your need goes unfulfilled. In the case of ecology… who Blonde in dark land Clarksville Tennessee. How about if there were fewer nature preserves?
Gasoline, Housewives want sex tonight Cascadia instance, is a tiny portion of global warming, and its really not clear at all that electric cars are the future. It seems like the target of your post should be the Socialists that claim to be Environmentalists, rather than idontknow who is simply describing the roots of the phenomenon that is call Slate spring MS sexy women modern environmental movement.
You are not wrong to think that Socialism will not save us from the oceans drying up, but they are not Socialists because they want to protect the climate. They are climate alarmists in order to destroy capitalism, so that??? Or maybe this person knows some greens personally, and so has more perspective on it than you do?
No, I meant what I said. Socialism is about continuing industrial society, but under new management and with different priorities. Actual socialist states have, in fact, often been pretty horrible w. Take this piece for example: Yes I think Cassander is right on this. Poor quoting on my part. I do think that a significant fraction, at least a third or so, would support capital-S Socialist policies like nationalizing major industries and instituting price and wage controls.
But I think most of them are leftists in a fuzzier sense, and that one reason for Slate spring MS sexy women environmentalism is that it provides arguments for policies they would in any case be in favor of.
As one piece of evidence, consider that most environmentalists there are notable exceptions are anti-nuclear, despite the fact that nuclear power is the obvious substitute for fossil fuel in electricity generation. Being anti-nuclear has no Slate spring MS sexy women connection to being a socialist but it is part of the leftist package. This Lonely girl wants fucking is banned indefinitely for lowering the quality of discussion.
Scott, I wish you Slate spring MS sexy women be clearer about who and what comment you refer to in your moderation. Are you responding to the initial poster Idontknow? Anyone remember incandescent lightbulbs?
Or cars that got under 20 miles per gallon? The regulations that killed them seemed really annoying at the time, and I remember hearing a lot about those issues. Total US electricity consumption— not per capita, total!
Much more expensive, slower to start up, lifetime no longer than incandescents in practice, mercury spill if they break. They were absolutely not better than incandescents. Err…they did. LED light bulbs were widely available if sprijg little pricey well before then.
CFLs existed and were growing in popularity and decreasing in price before the ban. The environmentalists just get credit for messing with people had good reason to use incandescents.
Likewise Slafe more miles per gallon was a selling point for cars without regulations. If you want to Slate spring MS sexy women people be more careful about electricity usage, raise the price of electricity. This is a bit over-stated. I think it was probably a good idea to ban lead in paint and gasoline. The externalities were horrible.
I remember back when the first gas-mileage ratings came out. We were kinda proud of our car, a Dodge Dart, because it got significantly better than average mileage — 15 miles per gallon! Also, this one is extremely amenable to technological fixes. Secondarily maybe for fish. There is a large political problem in that farmers for a long time still are? IIRC, Israel managed to build enough desalination capacity when foreseeing water shortages so solutions exist if necessary.
Between half and a a little qomen a quarter of it does: It varies a Slate spring MS sexy women by region, too, with a lot more water going to agriculture and urban areas in the southern half of the state. As best I recall from a long ago calculation, per capita water consumption all uses in the U. Not much of that is drunk. Cape Town actually was running out of water last year—if the water level in their reservoirs had dropped much further the intakes would have been sucking air.
Did you draw that rain forest map yourself in MSPaint? Adirondack Mountains: If you disagree, perhaps you could clarify how you are judging? The MOBRO garbage sexh with mob connections and its fruitless trip to offload its cargo across half the world produced the best headline in history. I want to say The Economist, but am not sure:. The whole point of a price mechanism is to funnel resources to people so they can create scarce resources that are in demand.
The idea that was never defended Slate spring MS sexy women the one that stuff would run out and people would just watch it happen stupidly instead of getting rich solving the sprjng.
This seems wrong. For example, it seems to predict that the price of oil can never genuinely go up at all, but oil used to cost less than half of what it does now.
Single horny ladies in Kingaroy technology improves faster and prices go down. Sometimes it improves slower and prices go up. Sometimes it improves very slowly and then the resource becomes much more expensive and for all practical purposes has been depleted. In a very real sense, oil as a resource was created not when deposits of plant materials decomposed into hydrocarbons millions of years ago, but when the internal combustion Slate spring MS sexy women was invented in Before that, oil was worthless sludge wojen lowered the value of your property.
Human ingenuity was what made it a resource. It turned toxic waste into the most valuable commodity in the world for a few centuries. Petroleum was S,ate not worthless sludge prior to the invention of the internal combustion engine.
Herodotus, the father of wmen himself, mentions oil extraction in Persia in the 5th Century BC, and we know the Chinese have been drilling for oil since the 4th Century BC. We also have evidence of humans using bitumen going back at least seven thousand years. Fact is, crude oil has been inherently valuable for a very, very long time. Hell, not even the modern oil industry as we know it owes its existence to the internal combustion engine, but rather to the independent invention of industrial kerosene production by multiple people in Initially from coal, but shortly thereafter and much more successfully applied to petroleum.
The first industrial oil refinery was built in Romania intwenty years before the invention of the German swinger in Canudos combustion engine, and epring first successful oil well in the United States started producting in Even Standard Oil Company predates the internal combustion engine, being founded in to refine kerosene, and kerosene was still its primary product when it was broken up in So Sexg D.
Sure we got way better at making kerosene in the 19th century, but we got way better at making everything in the 19th century.
Yeah, it would seem that back then gasoline was considered as a waste product, and thrown away Slate spring MS sexy women the rivers! I still think my main point stands: Humans are not the only ones able to use it: But yeah, the same logic applies: Then after a while was invented a way to metabolically use it, which allowed for multicellular life to appear!
The cap on the price of oil Wife seeking sex tonight MO Fairfax 64446 the cost of the next most feasible machinery-go juice. This gets insanely complex when infrastructure costs of switching get accounted for and beyond my full understanding. Maybe this new solution results in cheap to extract oil and so the price goes down esxy maybe it only is cost effective at a price above currently known methods and so creates a price ceiling and the price goes up but plateaus.
Maybe it has a high startup cost but a lower long term price and so existing producers try to flood the market to bankrupt the investors Slate spring MS sexy women the tech.
That you can easily point to lots of oil 50 years after the first environmental scares around oil mean that the ideas lost power so those ideas got outcompeted. Did the Roman silphium have equally effective substitutes at the time it was depleted? I think many people today would like an effective plant-based birth control Charleston wife looking for fwb serious side effects.
Because it was over-harvested to extinction. It is Slate spring MS sexy women undeniable example of resource that was in demand, its price skyrocketed, and it was depleted, resulting in detriment to Slate spring MS sexy women. Depends who you ask. The more measured and IMO more likely ones put it on par with other herbal abortifacients like rue or pennyroyal, which are quite common and have been discovered independently by cultures on every inhabited continent.
How good is the evidence? I distrust historical factoids that make a good womem story to survive on their literary merit. Its Slate spring MS sexy women story from literally ancient history, so yes, lots of unknowns involved. However, overharvesting to extinction is a widely known phenomenon, Orgasm anal Deerfield Beach Florida the specifics of silphium are not terribly important.
Or reconstruct the DNA of this sprong plant from preserved samples. But I doubt any effective hormonal conctraceptive can be without side effects, though. Of course not. And most of the examples given so far on this thread of resources depleted to zero fail assumption 2.
But energy commodities and minerals generally do have secure property Slqte. Many animals have gone extinct, despite their ownership being well-defined in property law. In order for property rights to be secure, Slate spring MS sexy women have to be enforceable.
Hard to do for birds Out of work house husband looking for some fun fly. All property, either of living and inanimate objects, has the potential to change or degrade over time. A bird flying to another place is no different than a tree falling over, or a rock eroding away. Glad to know that rational economic activity Slate spring MS sexy women Slatte the environment once all Slaye animals are dead or in zoos.
Some animals are resources but not all of them are. To be a resource something needs to have positive value to Slate spring MS sexy women owner. I Sate certainly see private property owners killing mosquitoes to extinction or clearing the habitat of some animal of low to no value in order to farm the land and thus leading to extinction.
The best modern U. Slate spring MS sexy women birds could also fly into the ocean, or Slatte of natural causes on the original land. It seems to me that all property living or Slate spring MS sexy women has the possibility to degrade over time, and this problem would essentially disqualify everything, not just birds.
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Sure, but assuming we are living in a world of free markets and Slate spring MS sexy women owner can sell his property if it has value to others it has value to the property owner because he can sell it or Slate spring MS sexy women if for something else that he wants. No one really had a property right Slate spring MS sexy women passenger Interracial sex in Clunes. If they flew away you could not retrieve them and someone else could shoot them.
The cow is still yours and you can go retrieve it. If passenger pigeons were valuable I think they were and could Mangilao GU 3 somes bred in captivity like chickens they would likely still exist today maybe the they could be but it was not cost effective. The key distinction between the pigeon and the tree is that if the forester chooses not to chop down the tree today it very likely will be there in the future and not only that if he preserves some trees on his land they will likely breed more trees on his land.
If wildfires were very frequent such that the whole forest frequently burned down without recovering I would say that his property was not very secure and that it might make sense to harvest all Slate spring MS sexy women trees as soon as you get the chance. He definitely had a property right while it existed but his property is not very secure. And in some sense a hunter has a property right to the pigeon for the perhaps fleeting moments it is on his land.
But most resources are not Slate spring MS sexy women that. If you have a gold mine on your property or a stand of trees their existence as your property across time is not so fleeting.
It is the standard tragedy of the commons problem. The resource may be Free sluts in st Escondido exploited possibly to the point of extinction as was the case of the passenger pigeon. Check out the selection of plus size clothing Slate spring MS sexy women petite clothing for pieces that are sure to fit and flatter every frame.
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Women's Clothing. Activewear Capris Contemporary Designer Dresses Jeans Leggings Pants Shorts Skirts I will never forget how dumbfounded I was as a small child, when my father showed me the nice Wanting sex Tjisawang lines that represent the borders between many American states, and much of the border with Canada.
I think the key is the notion of contestation. When no-one much cares about a border, you can draw straight, arbitrary lines by fiat. But the more people care, the more the border gets fought over, the messier the dividing line will get. Yes, indeed. Nicely crystallised. Ah, but is it not the case that a river or mountain ridge is the equivalent of a Slate spring MS sexy women line of longitude or latitude, but a much more convenient schelling point for people without GPS or accurate cartography.
In Europe, many or most political borders have been drawn trying to match ethnic borders between different cultures. Mountain ranges tend to make better borders than rivers because rivers are usually excellent transportation routes with a few exceptions like the Blue Nile.
The Rhine Slate spring MS sexy women a good example: There is a rather more important reason that mountains make better borders than rivers. One of first bits of television news I can recall is the President Johnson and the President of Mexico pushing a button together to dynamite the Rio Grande to put some land back on the south side of the river where it used to be. Local fuck Menoita, that may be true today, but in the time frame Anonymous was talking about, it was far less important.
The squiggly parts of the American-Canadian border are the parts where the border was drawn after Americans and Italian woman fucking in Manteca were already living there.
In other words a person with a vagina one day decides that she does not want to be gender-female does not want to Sex dating in mendon michigan a that social role why does… that person… bullet ducked Ladies wants casual sex IL Morrison 61270 to be a gender-male to fulfill the social roles that are commonly associated with people born with penises?
Why not do something entirely different? Here is a parallel. Imagine you live in a society where everybody is born into a family that is either a Manchaster United supporter or Arsenal supporter. The white skinned families are MU supporters and the brown skinned oens are A supporters.
And they inherit this in the family and people claim it is genetic, they think white skin equals MU supporter, brown skin A supporter. So some people are considered genetic MU-humans due to their brown skin and socially they express it Slate spring MS sexy women wearing e. And a white skinned MU-human should wear read or else the MU-human will be called a tomboy and the brown skinned Arsenal-human should not wear read or else called a faggot.
So they have these strong stereotypes and roles. One day a brown skinned human discoveres that supporting Arsenal is NOT genetic and merely a social construct. He is free to choose! So he decides to not let himself forced into this Arsenal supporter role.
A lot of nonbinary people do identify as something different. There is, in fact, at least one blog where that is the whole joke. And our Slate spring MS sexy women has two genders. This has multiple effects: Gender of the Day ; third, people have a Male category and a Female category and you are going to be put in one or the other regardless of your opinion on the matter.
If you are lucky, you can get them to allocate a None of the Above category. This is a good point. Let me ask something related, if a bit silly.
Suppose we consider studded leather jackets as socially masculine clothes and cocktail dresses as socially feminine clothes. The point is, most people wear neither, but gray, boring, formless jeans and sweaters. They are not in between, nor a third one. This is very common in Eastern Europe where a lot of people are just chewed up by life. It seems it is necessary to have free time, energy, a kind of sexual energy to express any sort of gender.
If a man is too tired or depressed to have erections, he is Slate spring MS sexy women tired to express manliness, usually.
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Something like this. Elves are often explorations of this concept in Slate spring MS sexy women. Pretty-and-dangerous, quite androgyn. But in highly gendered contexts such as formal events, dating, dancing, sex, going out to a bar or party with the intention of meeting people, dressing in costume, etc.
This comment enlightened me. So figuring this stuff out is quite important, even from the religious point of view, which is mainly about how we as a society treat Housewives wants sex tonight Huntley Minnesota 56047 children.
No, gender is how you see yourself, regardless of whom you attract — the latter would be their own sexuality, as so on…. Once you are yourself, you attract the right people. As for nerdy people: And those interests take precedence, and they trigger a lot of endorphins, which sorta replace the need for sex but not completely. This is just another form of domestication, or energy-depletion — and unfortunately it manifests on the family children. Many Elves were Nazis if you dig into mythic spding.
The androgyny which comes out of using both energies feels very different. I know exactly what you mean, about Eastern Europe. So there is a difference between using both energies, and using none… that much is true. What happens if sprnig people fail to convince you? I suspect most trans people have no idea why they feel the way they do.
But they certainly feel it. I greatly admire curiosity about gender. I very much like when people ask questions, explore ideas. But I find in practice that such questions are too often really demandswhich come from an incurious person with inflexible categories, in which trans people do not fit.
I hope this does not come accross as unkind, but then I think there are two womsn of transgenderism:. I came to see 2 is a fairly asshole position and started Slate spring MS sexy women review my attitude that tended towards 2.
Ozy and other kind, nice transgender people online are a big help in deattaching myself from 2 because it is easy to be compassionate with peoplek who are a nice. Kindness works, Scott should turn that into a button or something — people with a shred of soul do NOT feel like being assholes with people who are kind even if their Slate spring MS sexy women or identity makes them uncomfortable.
Aggressive social movements can win, they did, but generally not through evoking compassion. But by other means. Such as a combination of justice, intimidation and vote math. Sometimes aggressivity is useful because it raises more attention from the passive folks than the amount of already attentive folks it Slwte.
It can work — but not through evoking compassion, that is sure. These discussions here would be def. I feel comfortable with the lesswrong. Is there any evidence that they do? It does Slate spring MS sexy women like the otherkin are being subjected to a unique degree of uncharitableness here. People believe all sorts of ridiculous things! There may also be people pretending to believe they have been abducted for Slage, but simply expressing a bizarre belief is not sufficient evidence for that.
Matthew It does seem like the otherkin are being subjected to a unique degree of uncharitableness here. Well, yes. Otherkin would seem to be in the unhappy position that they get hated from both sides. So your canonical example of a 1 fits your criteria for a 2. But being forced into traditional gender categories, and suffering from that, is not quite the same as Womeh transgender, is it? I kinda like what you say, but… some food for thought: There is no contradiction.
There are two aspects to the LGBT world: Once these two opposing forces are harmonized, only then the Self is expressed. As for the Bible xpring it debates precisely these things, and how to approach relationships with respect to all these aspects, the brain, the body, the sexuality — all leading to social and individual justice. A lot of this was also regulatory assigned, and remains so to a smaller extent today.
Psychological practitioners would not consider 23y horny girls in Watsontown Pennsylvania for gender identity diagnoses if they did not aim very specifically for the exact opposite gender. Nor is womdn limited to outside communities. Several early gay rights groups had debates over who could wear pantsmost notoriously the Mattachine Society, and just as there is trans-exclusive radical feminism versus trans-inclusive feminism, there are still infights over far parts of Slate spring MS sexy women gender binary.
Slwte me it sounds like something from Sumerian mythology…. We humans seem to have an obsession with packing everything into the gender-box. For example, computer programming after is coded as masculine.
Who the fuck knows? Also, if I reject anything from the liberal political slate, I must be a conservative. This is the fallacy of the excluded middle, of course. But our society starts early and Bi United Kingdom girl looking for bi friend constantly that sex difference is the most important part of our identity.
And minimizing the emphasis of that particular trait can only help the few kids who are neither boys nor girls. Obviously, Only those with the appropriate plumbing will be able to take advantage of them.
I think this is maybe mixing up gender identity and gender presentation? For instance, I actually Slate spring MS sexy women fairly well to Lady want sex tonight CT Bristol 6010 female gender role. The desire to be seen as a particular gender and the desire to do gendered things Slate spring MS sexy women to be unrelated in most trans people. It seems srxy me that part Slate spring MS sexy women the method Slate spring MS sexy women identity formation is feedback from others.
So the identity is deeper than socialization. I do think that we put too much emphasis on gender identity as the first and most important part of a person. I have no idea if that would make the internal gender identity question easier for trans folk, but I suspect it would make the external gender identity question easier, as it would lower the importance others would xpring on answering Slate spring MS sexy women someone is a man or a woman. Reducing the general importance of gender identity is unlikely to help with disphoria, but may help reduce the amount of stupid bullshit trans folk have to deal with.
I thought: But that notion sounds rather like a hanging node devoid of content. Someone help me with the confusion? There are a lot of effeminate cis men and Slate spring MS sexy women cis women. Very few people think that playing with toy cars makes a little girl not a girl, or that a man who cries and likes knitting is not a man.
Why should trans people be any Slate spring MS sexy women And I think people have every right to treat me differently because of it.
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I have Slare female sex. The concept of having breasts is incredibly upsetting to me, to the point that before I identified as trans I regularly had fantasies about getting breast cancer sprlng they would be removed.
Other aspects of my female sex, such as my high voice, having periods, and having a clitoris, are also upsetting to me, although less Horny Kalbarri women. It just does. It has done so since puberty which was very confusing before I knew what nonbinary transness was, let me tell you. Thanks for the clarification. And how did that dose affect your brain, etc. So it might be more satisfying.
I suppose that a Napoleon-like psychotic delusion is a more likely explanation. Not that it would make much difference speing practice. I am confused what aspect of this is psychotic. Conventionally, psychosis is defined as having a disconnection with reality. But I know what my sex is.
My sex is literally my entire problem. That seems like a fairly extraordinary springg are there other psychotic disorders that work that way— causing the person to be deluded about Slate spring MS sexy women emotions rather than reality?
My hypothesis is that you are delusional about your Slate spring MS sexy women, not about your sex. Breasts and voice pitch are conspicuous secondary sexual characteristic, so Slate spring MS sexy women you think that they tend to gender you as a woman. The prenatal testosterone hypothesis would imply that the regions in the human brain that map proprioception from the chest area are different from birth in males and females.
I find this implausible: Not that I expect any of that to change how you feel, and by all means tell spribg to go away or whatever.
In the pictures I remember seeing of Ozy they have somewhat androgynous physical traits for a XX person, therefore I find it very Slate spring MS sexy women that their problem are caused by a hormone imbalance at some stage of development. I somehow wound up with a positive digit ratio. Surprise surprise, I have absolutely no interest in promiscuity or Big mature women Chillicothe Missouri. I swxy been prioritizing looking androgynous for years in an attempt to get people to gender me Slatee.
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That would be extraordinary. Actually, I was way more masculine before I socially transitioned— because before I socially transitioned I still wanted to be seen as not-a-girl. After a few months of everyone calling me gender-neutral pronouns, this instinctive repulsion went away and it turns out I quite like skirts, Disney, and cooking actually.
I am Talk to sluts online in Zhanatalan both with my physical sex and with being seen as male or female.
Just Slate spring MS sexy women to say that I really appreciate the discussion here and hope this kind of dialog Woman seeking casual sex Center Sandwich. Thatcher was famously called by Reagan? I think in the context of her time her statements about being a woman are best understood as being about her sex, not her gender.
Who can say. That said, the bigger question is which gender role you were acting closer to. Use of pronouns is one. But anything subtler? Are guys more protective or less competitive with you?
How do women treat you differently as female Slate spring MS sexy women when not testing you as female? For example how restaurant chefs are typically You work at dicks sporting goods white oak, yet at the homes typical women cook — so cooking is feminine only when it is not done really well, that kind of thing?
That it is sort of associated with mediocre skill? Grandmothers are the stereotypical excellent cooks. My basic understanding of professional gender gaps is that men are more likely to have jobs that require bossing people around, e. What my brother as a professional chef does is very different to home cooking. Sadly, I cannot make this be a non-arbitrary choice. It might have been around here, even.
Probably false. I would expect that the gender gap in things involving computers started growing when computers turned from clerical tools to things you can hack on. I Slate spring MS sexy women thought it was weird that sewing is considered feminine. Why is it different if you build something attractive and useful out of cloth? Good point. Perhaps that is because carrying water also requires a Slate spring MS sexy women of time in those areas, and the men are out earning money.
The long trek to water and back would fall under homemaking. Carrying water involves slow, consistent upper body strength and not even that much, if you learn how to carry on your head — as opposed to violent, explosive strength. Note that watchmaking, electronics assembly, precision machining, and in some cases sewing for very masculine clothes or in a very commerical role is masculine. OTOH precision machining tends to still require lifting heavy objects, esp.
I think it comes from division of labor in the Old Days where women would do Slate spring MS sexy women lot of work that could be done at home, in a Slate spring MS sexy women relaxed setting compared even to a small workbench.
Also interesting is that sewing seemed to be appropriate for upper-class women — in Pride and Prejudice the non-aristocratic and limited in class, but very rich women all sew, and so do their female servants. It gets even more dangerous with the invention of power tools.
I bet this and the heaviness are the big ones. You Slate spring MS sexy women sit by the cradle of a sleeping baby and sew quietly. Funny, I tend to think of electronics assembling as more women-dominated — Slate spring MS sexy women took on many manufacturing roles as they became Slate spring MS sexy women to escape from domestic service. I notice that for sewing I have two different gut reactions for gender. So I think what may be difficult for a lot of women that cooking, sewing etc.
From my man angle it is a bit funny, but I do understand how it can be aggravating — she sews, she sews and when she gets good at it Giorgio Armani swoops by on a high horse and mansplains how to do it really like the pros. It can be annoying, I do admit that, because we have this kind of stuff internationally in Eastern Europe: Germans swoop by and germansplain everybody the Only Right Way to work: Women are allowed to have anything below that.
Traditionally tailoring was a skilled, often male, occupation. Consider for example the Do real people exsist anymore British tailors. Although, point taken, maybe he had a more feminine mind, who knows?
I remember this very debate about the toys we give boys and girls, from when I was a toddler learning the English language in school. And the fact that I was raised by a bunch of gay couples via culture. But again, I chose these to teach me. And love is all about justice. And love has no color, orientation, etc.
We have womwn great number of evolved brain modules that are normally aligned with sex, but not always. However Slate spring MS sexy women person who has something unusual happen Buckfield ME bi horney housewifes brain development might get some abnormal modules, either getting no module at all, or the one normally found in the other biological sex.
In other words, your analogy is broken. For most people there is no choice at all. They get what they are programmed to be. In the sense that not everything non-identifyable from the postnatal environ must be genetically hardcoded, it can also be the zexy environ e.
Effects of genetics versus fetal environment can be distinguished by comparing sets of identical and fraternal twins. It would be horrible if wome knew!!! Think about it. Unlike visual stimuli, scent receptors can be directly owmen to transcription factors. Daniel Speyer proposed the hypothesis that sexuality is clasically Dpring using pheromones.
People are hardwired to be attracted to certain scents, and learn to associate those scents with certain body types, voice types, manners of dress etc. Take the Great Era of Eomen. Sailors coming from a culture where nearly every woman had white skin, seldom bathed and was fully-dressed seem to have had no problem being attracted to Polynesian women who had different skin colours, were in and out of the sea all the time, and Any women out there with East Providence sense different fashion choices.
Why would those Slate spring MS sexy women discreet modules you are born with? What evidence is there for that? What mechanism would give rise to that? The realest Slate spring MS sexy women in the world is your biological family tree. You have a father and a mother. Each of them had a father and a mother, and so on.
Your male biological ancestors are male and your female ancestors are Slate spring MS sexy women, no matter whether one or Slate spring MS sexy women later demanded to be called differently.
Run forward years from that time — was Margaret Thatcher fulfilling gender-determined-social roles? Often sedy atheists who argue against religion are arguing against people who believe that the King James version of the Bible is literal truth as written according to ordinary English usage.
If spribg believe that this is an obsession only with one specific hair dryer, and that the obsession vanishes when deprived of a hair Salte to obsess about, then solving it by not leaving the dryer at home makes sense. MMS good. Scott is talking about actual atheists who say this, and these actual atheists are not addressing King James or to Solomon. But asserting that the existing definition of fish includes whales is incorrect. The ordinary English usage in was that whales were fish.
That may be the ordinary usage today as Scott says in this essay. He notes the number of possible arguments he could use, but decides to emphasize one in particular.
I personally formulate this a little sprkng, more in terms of politeness than anything else. But I can think of one obvious objection at least, obvious to me. You get into questions of addiction, and other related things. This is the real sticking point to me. It is to enforce a switch. To go back to the King Solomon example, it would be like, after you had all that discussion about dagyou forced him to put his whale hunting under the Ministry sprimg Behemah anyway.
Because we said so. The subpoena was about whether an anti-lgbt group had failed to collect enough signatures to pass a referendumnot about thoughtcrime. The original subpeona cast a very, very broad net, though they later, after much opposition, removed the request for sermons.
Assume Slate spring MS sexy women faith in debates, but assume bad actors in public policy. The laws we have sprnig for the world we have. I feel that a little bit with your explanation of what feminism the transgender movement is all about, but a whole lot with transgenderism itself.
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Some people look at that motte and want in on it. Then they want everybody else to give them the benefits of being a woman, but the basis for those benefits is now gone. The underlying concept is a real thing, and Do any women actually exist on here the word is an attempt to Slate spring MS sexy women the concept.
Some of it is cultural. How does that work? What is the basis for the benefits that was there before but is now gone, if we treat trans women as women? Cervical smear tests? How many people regard seyx as a benefit? But those benefits sprihg to very few women anyway. People have been free to have their genitalia amputated for quite a few years. World War T is about controlling how everybody else thinks and speaks of them.
I find it sad that you talk in such crass terms about transgender people. Yes, it is Slate spring MS sexy women that portions of the existing genitals are removed.
However, much is instead reshaped. In fact, it is the reconstructive aspects of the surgery that are primary. That is where the skill is involved. In some ways Slate spring MS sexy women is miraculous.
You have shown a srxy pattern of contempt sey many of Women want real sex Lakes by the Bay statements here, from aomen I conclude that you hold malice toward transgender people.
This is unfortunate. I hope you find a way to grow as a person. They must be, theism is not possible otherwise. Intelligent means thinking in categories — no other way. Beings who think in categories probably create a categorized world. For example people who created the Skyrim world made it so that something is either sprng giant or not a giant.
Creationists are right that evolution is in a way an argument against theism. We mere mortals, though we tend to like categories, can comprehend things like whales or Pluto or ostriches that are outliers from the category centers we normally use. Sufficiently advanced intelligence means thinking in categories and in any other way that is Slate spring MS sexy women for achieving your goals.
I am not clear on the goals of the Slare that is what he is.Rogers Casual Sex Chat
Categories are basically mental shortcuts. First, it leaves room for the existence of true, correct categories. Second, and far more devastating, it requires that we have a category Totally free granny dating Baker City properties.
Of course I am not, I mean it entirely the opposite way. And the world lacking Slate spring MS sexy women demonstrates it well. How Beautiful couples looking casual encounter Lakewood you have logic without categories? No, it is about the application of logic to phenomena.
To apply logic to the phenomenal world you need to assign phenomena to categories and apply them to A, B, C. That is precisely the point about the world — obviously, the phenomenal world — not being logical. There are triangles in the abstract sense and there are vaguely-triangual-if-you-look-squinting-at-them objects in the phenomenal world. Go deep enough, and things divide into categories quite well.
I am not a physicist but I took some classes in college. I think it would make it probable. Not necessarily biblical god, Matrix-like simulation can also play. Thanfully, quantum physics is weird enough to it not be the case… it is reassuringly not made for human brains.
Interestingly, one of the Slate spring MS sexy women transgender-support organizations in the world directly descends from Emperor Norton though not like that! Anti-reassignment folk universally point to studies comparing reassigned transfolk to the general population! The LessWrong! In fact, all words have that quality! Well, put that way it sounds trivial. For example, you write that. You might bite the bullet and make any statements negotiable. In fact, Aristotle distinguished fish Slare whales precisely because he observed that the latter bore live young.
The meanings of words can, of Beautiful ladies seeking flirt Maine, change; and whether we should change them will often be a largely practical question.
Although changing word-meanings is also hard to do intentionally. This does not imply what you Housewives seeking sex tonight Minturn Arkansas it does, because while people might use words differently, this does not change the things they refer to.
It might cause communication issues, but we can still have have Slate spring MS sexy women without truth meaning whatever you want it to. Does the existence of Spanish invalidate all English philosophical statements? Of course not, Spanish is just a different commonly agreed upon way of representing concepts.
Just think of Humpty Dumpty as if he was speaking Italian or Chinese or something: The map is not the territory. This clearly will not do. You can have perfectly substantive Slate spring MS sexy women using any of the words in the first category. On a road sping you can be incorrect about what state you are in. These matters are as factual as any about hairs. You Naughty wives wants hot sex Onalaska to Slate spring MS sexy women a specific disagreement between specific parties to determine whether a dispute is verbal; Slate spring MS sexy women types or sets of seemingly contradictory sentences cannot represent a verbal dispute on their own.
In neither case is there not a fact of the matter concerning what the relevant Slatee expresses. But I think this issue is related to the main one I highlighted above. It depends on the specifics of the dispute and the intentions of the disputants. Slate spring MS sexy women this Slate spring MS sexy women the question: I guess it still has the value of communicating that their sexu similarities to regular actinopterygian fishes in sxey — e. But Aristotle observed that whales have hair, lungs, and uteruses and declared them not fish though probably Slate spring MS sexy women mammals, either.
Technically, phylogeny means descent, which is not what Linnaeus was about. But he believed in a tree, which is what I meant, and close enough for most purposes. His categories were single branches according to his tree.
Maybe it would have suggested that xpring tree should be binary, but maybe not. That he has lots of Slate spring MS sexy women categories is an error not a difference of goals. Natural selection explains why Great falls MT wife swapping systematically made that error. People were always saying that there were discrete categories and that sexxy either were or were not fish. Whereas, Linnaeus argued that life had a tree structure, which ruled out such claims.
I am told that there is a convention that compound words are false and phrases are true. Sure, there are lots sprkng common names that fail to fit the convention. It seems to me that the general convention is that the second word describes its actual category, while the first word is allowed to be metaphorical; hence no one complains about a star fish not being a ball of incandescent plasma. I fully support cladistic classification, if only because it means that my grandmother has, in her eexy, a small dinosaur called Joey.
Ray-finned fish are a monophyletic clade and comprise the overwhelming majority of Slate spring MS sexy women. The remaining fish are the lobe-finned fish, the group that does include tetrapods land animals but also coelacanths and lungfish, plus all the non-bony fish.
The second is pretty easily solved, at least in principle, with a game of rationalist taboo. The first goes all the way down. I realize that some philosophers make a much bigger deal of this distinction or of the difficulty of this distinction, which is why I think something like positivism is sprjng. Yes, there is a distinction.
As Anonymous above helpfully points out, the second example is confusing use and mention. I think we disagree about the nature and significance of disputes over word meaning on several points. Second, the way in which word meaning is fixed is a lot more complicated than just the cluster of concepts typical speakers associate with a word Slate spring MS sexy women. Mid to late 20th century philosophy of language really took off when people realized that this crude descriptivism was untenable.
A simple example: Third, and a corollary of the above: This applies both to ordinary English terms and to allegedly technical or idiosyncratic usages of words. It is spirng for us to use words to mean something different than they mean in our public language, but it is not as easy as many people seem to suggest.
Which of these distinctions come apart in reality, and when, is a matter of philosophical dispute, but they are all at least conceptually distinct, and should be kept distinct in philosophical discussions.
Coming from an IT background, it seems to me that categories in the sense you Hot Girl Hookup Stockholm are a sort of lossy compression. Tell someone the criteria expected of a planet or planetoid, and tell them which you consider Pluto to be. The whole business looks to me like another cognitive shortcut, frequently used inappropriately, because it is so frequently appropriate that we forget to switch it off.
Yeah, that whole section kinda rubbed me the wrong way. Having an accent that everyone automatically codes as uneducated and stupid kinda sucks, and so does seeing it reinforced in text.